Noun

Introduction:
Every sentence in the English Language is a systematically arranged group of words. Each word in a sentence performs a specific function. In this chapter, we are going to learn the functions of ‘noun’ in a sentence.

Meaning of Noun:
Noun is a word or a group of words that shows the name of a ‘thing’. Here, ‘a thing ’ includes almost anything. It can be a person, a place, an object, an idea, a thought or any other concrete or abstract thing.

Nouns are italicised in the following sentences.
1. Sachin Tendulkar is known as Master Blaster.
2. Narendra Modi is the Prime Minister of India.
3. Maharashtra is a land of saints.
4. Lata Mangeshkar sings songs.
5. I love my country.

Other Functions of Noun:
1. Subject of a Verb
Ex. Jatin secured the first rank in the chess match.
2. Object of a Verb

Ex. Radhaiya cracked the NDA exam.
3. Complement of a Verb
Ex. My father is a lawyer.
4. Object of a Preposition
Ex. The book is on the table.
5. Possessive Case
Ex.This is Vinay’s book.
Kinds of Noun:
Nouns are classified into two main categories viz. countable and uncountable based on whether the things they denote can be counted in number or measured in units of measurement. Countable Noun: The names of things which can be counted in number, such as one, two, three, etc. are known as countable nouns.
Examples:
1. pen : We can count it as one pen, two pens, three pens, etc.
2. book: We can count it as one book, two books, three books, etc.
3. class: We can count it as one class, two classes, three classes, etc.
4. bouquet: We can count it as one bouquet, two bouquets, three bouquets, etc
5. city: We can count it as one city, two cities, three cities, etc.

Countable Nouns are further subcategorised as follows.

Proper Noun:
Proper Noun is the name of a specific person, place of thing. It cannot be used for any other person, place or thing.
For instance, Rohan is the name of a specific person. We cannot use it for any other person (excluding exeptions).

More Examples: Delhi, Aurangabad, the Pacific, the Ganges, the Taj Mahal, Niraj, Sunaina, etc.

Common Noun:
Common Noun is the name of a person, place or thing. It can be used for any other person, place, or thing of the same kind.
For instance, city is a common noun. We can use this name for any other place of the same kind.
More Examples: city, country, capital, ocean, boy, girl, river, monument, etc.

Collective Noun:
Collective Noun is the name given to a group of things of the same kind.
For instance, army is the name given to the soldiers of a nation collectively.
More Examples: crowd (of people), herd (cattle), bouquet (of flowers), delegation (of students), flock (of birds), set (of rules), class (of students), bench (of judges), etc.

Uncountable Noun:
The names of things which cannot be counted in number, such as one, two, three, etc. but can be measured in different units of measurement such as kilos, litres, quintals, etc. are known as uncountable nouns. Names of qualities and other abstract things are also known as uncountable nouns.
Examples:
1. water : We cannot count it as one water, two waters, three waters, etc. But we can measure it as
2. sugar: We cannot count it as one sugar, two sugars, three sugars, etc.
3. oil: We cannot count it as one oil, two oils, three oils, etc.
4. rice: We cannot count it as one rice, two rices, three rices, etc
5. wheat: We cannot count it as one wheat, two, wheats, three wheats, etc.

Uncountable Nouns are subcategorised as follows.

Material Noun:
Material Noun is the name of matter in any of the three states viz. solid, liquid or gaseous. It is the name of a thing from which other things are derived.
For instance, copper is the name of a material from which other things are derived.
More Examples: rice, wheat, soil, air, gas, silver, gold, water, oil, coffee, ghee, etc.

Abstract Noun:
Abstract Noun is the name of a quality, idea, thought, feeling, emotion, action or state.
For instance, beauty is the name of a quality. Therefore, it is an abstract noun.
More Examples: honesty, bravery, youth, childhood, honesty, wisdom, sorrow, happiness, etc.

NOUN – NUMBER:
Noun can be either singular or plural.
Singular Noun:
The noun which denotes only one thing is known as a singular noun. All countable nouns can be used in singular forms.

Plural Noun:
The noun which denotes more than one thing is known as a plural noun. All countable nouns can be used in plural forms
For instance, books, pens, trees, chairs, cities, etc.
NOUN – GENDER:
Nouns are classified into the following four genders.
Masculine Gender:
A noun is said to be in the masculine gender when it shows the male of a living being.
For instance, man, boy, uncle, brother, son, nephew, husband, etc.

Feminine Gender:
A noun is said to be in the feminine gender when it shows the female of a living being.
For instance, woman, girl, aunt, sister, daughter, etc.

Common Gender:
A noun is said to be in the common gender when it is commonly used to show any of the two
– male or female of a living being.
For instance, student, teacher, doctor, child, baby, etc.

Neuter Gender:
A noun is said to be in the neuter gender when it shows neither of the two – male or female of a living being.
For instance, book, table, chair, building, tree, box, etc.

NOUN – CASE:
Case is a grammatical category of noun whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a sentence.
Noun has the following four cases.
Nominative Case:
When a noun functions as the subject of a verb in a sentence, it is said to be in the nominative case. Nominative case is also known as Subjective Case.
For instance,
1. The Principal issued a circular pertaining to the modifications in the school schedule.
2. Lokesh is my favourite student.
In these examples the italiised nouns function as subjects of the verbs issued and is respectively. This is why they are in the nominative case.

Objective Case:
When a noun functions as the object of a verb or object of a preposition in a sentence, it is said to be in the objective case.
For instance,
1. I gave Dinesh a book.
2. I gave a book to Dinesh.
In the first sentence, the noun ‘Dinesh’ functions as the object of the verb ‘gave’. In the second sentence, the same noun functions as the object of the preposition ‘to’. Therefore, the noun ‘Dinesh’ is said to be in the objective case in both of the sentences.

Possessive Case:
When a noun denotes possession or ownership over a thing, it is said to be in the possessive case. Possessive Case is also known as Genitive Case.
For instance,
1. This is Rohan’s book.
2. The leaves of Tulsi cure many ailments.

Vocative Case:
When a noun is used to call a person by name, it is said to be in the vocative case.
1. Come in, Mr Rao.
2. How are you, Soham?
In these sentences, the nouns Mr Rao and Soham are both in the dative case because they are used to call those persons.

Dative Case:
When a noun is used as an indirect object it is said to be in the Dative Case.
For instance,
1. We gifted our friend the autobiography of Mahatma Gandhi.
2. We gifted the autobiography of Mahatma Gandhi to our friend.

Accusative Case:
When a noun is used as a direct object, it is said to be in the Accusative Case.
1. I gave him a book.
2. The Principal awarded him a trophy.

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